# How it works¶

Pyinstrument interrupts the program every 1ms1 and records the entire stack at that point. It does this using a C extension and PyEval_SetProfile, but only taking readings every 1ms. Check out this blog post for more info.

You might be surprised at how few samples make up a report, but don’t worry, it won’t decrease accuracy. The default interval of 1ms is a lower bound for recording a stackframe, but if there is a long time spent in a single function call, it will be recorded at the end of that call. So effectively those samples were ‘bunched up’ and recorded at the end.

## Statistical profiling (not tracing)¶

Pyinstrument is a statistical profiler - it doesn’t track every function call that your program makes. Instead, it’s recording the call stack every 1ms.

That gives some advantages over other profilers. Firstly, statistical profilers are much lower-overhead than tracing profilers.

Django template render × 4000

Base

████████████████                        0.33s

pyinstrument

████████████████████                    0.43s

30%

cProfile

█████████████████████████████           0.61s

84%

profile

██████████████████████████████████...██ 6.79s

2057%

But low overhead is also important because it can distort the results. When using a tracing profiler, code that makes a lot of Python function calls invokes the profiler a lot, making it slower. This distorts the results, and might lead you to optimise the wrong part of your program!

## Full-stack recording¶

The standard Python profilers profile and cProfile show you a big list of functions, ordered by the time spent in each function. This is great, but it can be difficult to interpret why those functions are getting called. It’s more helpful to know why those functions are called, and which parts of user code were involved.

For example, let’s say I want to figure out why a web request in Django is slow. If I use cProfile, I might get this:

151940 function calls (147672 primitive calls) in 1.696 seconds

Ordered by: cumulative time

ncalls  tottime  percall  cumtime  percall filename:lineno(function)
1    0.000    0.000    1.696    1.696 profile:0(<code object <module> at 0x1053d6a30, file "./manage.py", line 2>)
1    0.001    0.001    1.693    1.693 manage.py:2(<module>)
1    0.000    0.000    1.586    1.586 __init__.py:394(execute_from_command_line)
1    0.000    0.000    1.586    1.586 __init__.py:350(execute)
1    0.000    0.000    1.142    1.142 __init__.py:254(fetch_command)
43    0.013    0.000    1.124    0.026 __init__.py:1(<module>)
388    0.008    0.000    1.062    0.003 re.py:226(_compile)
158    0.005    0.000    1.048    0.007 sre_compile.py:496(compile)
1    0.001    0.001    1.042    1.042 __init__.py:78(get_commands)
153    0.001    0.000    1.036    0.007 re.py:188(compile)
106/102    0.001    0.000    1.030    0.010 __init__.py:52(__getattr__)
1    0.000    0.000    1.029    1.029 __init__.py:31(_setup)
1    0.000    0.000    1.021    1.021 __init__.py:57(_configure_logging)
2    0.002    0.001    1.011    0.505 log.py:1(<module>)


It’s often hard to understand how your own code relates to these traces.

Pyinstrument records the entire stack, so tracking expensive calls is much easier. It also hides library frames by default, letting you focus on your app/module is affecting performance.

  _     ._   __/__   _ _  _  _ _/_   Recorded: 14:53:35  Samples:  131
/_//_/// /_\ / //_// / //_'/ //    Duration: 3.131     CPU time: 0.195
/   _/                    v3.0.0b3

3.131 <module>  manage.py:2
└─ 3.118 execute_from_command_line  django/core/management/__init__.py:378
[473 frames hidden]  django, socketserver, selectors, wsgi...
2.836 select  selectors.py:365
0.126 _get_response  django/core/handlers/base.py:96
└─ 0.126 hello_world  django_example/views.py:4


## ‘Wall-clock’ time (not CPU time)¶

Pyinstrument records duration using ‘wall-clock’ time. When you’re writing a program that downloads data, reads files, and talks to databases, all that time is included in the tracked time by pyinstrument.

That’s really important when debugging performance problems, since Python is often used as a ‘glue’ language between other services. The problem might not be in your program, but you should still be able to find why it’s slow.

## Async profiling¶

pyinstrument can profile async programs that use async and await. This async support works by tracking the ‘context’ of execution, as provided by the built-in contextvars module.

When you start a Profiler with the async_mode enabled or strict (not disabled), that Profiler is attached to the current async context.

When profiling, pyinstrument keeps an eye on the context. When execution exits the context, it captures the await stack that caused the context to exit. Any time spent outside the context is attributed to the that halted execution of the await.

Async contexts are inherited, so tasks started when a profiler is active are also profiled.

pyinstrument supports async mode with Asyncio and Trio, other async/await frameworks should work as long as they use contextvars.

Greenlet doesn’t use async and await, and alters the Python stack during execution, so is not fully supported. However, because greenlet also supports contextvars, we can limit profiling to one green thread, using strict mode. In strict mode, whenever your green thread is halted the time will be tracked in an <out-of-context> frame. Alternatively, if you want to see what’s happening when your green thread is halted, you can use async_mode='disabled' - just be aware that readouts might be misleading if multiple tasks are running concurrently.

1

Or, your configured interval.